Responsible for a Future Buildings Budget? How to budget?



A better future so pervasive, never before has there been so much need for space we're living in this period of green urbanization right now, particularly when you see what's happening in Latin America and Africa andIndia, we need to build as many buildings in Africa be building Europe and learn about how to budget?, in the last 200 years, That’s an unbelievable number. We have to build with people in mind. We mustn't lose sight of that, because the biggest problem that we are facing issues of division, the issues that come out of it we have to act now, for the sake of our future. Architects of the planets and the engineers around the world are looking for answers to some of the most pressing questions of our time. How can we, as citizens of our planets, live together happily in the future?


Where is that rock for the future?


Anyway, the question of how and above all, where we will live in the future Inevitably leads us here to the 16 encapsulates the modern world and all our conceptions of modern life. Some of our greatest success stories begin when your opportunity is a waste. It’s a place of longing made of steel, concrete glass, I think the attraction of cities is many folds. The history of cities is about managing the surplus from the countryside.


So, when agriculture surplus existed, markets were set up and then when that became more regular phenomenon and it became a stage two street before it began to settle. It was always a place that had opportunity because it meant the wealth got concentrated there. It meant that one service led to another. More job opportunities existed, but clearly, cities are condensers, Cities are where you can gain anonymous. Cities are where you don't carry the bag back into any social dislocations that you might've, experienced.


Cities allow you to feel like you could start again from scratch on an equal footing:


The lights of the city, they draw us in from far and wide. Even today, more than half of us live in urban areas. By 2050 it will be almost 70 % every year. The global population grows by 80 million people, be issue of overpopulation is first and foremost an urban problem. When many people dream of the same place, the space for dreaming becomes scarce.


Yeah, Ben condenser has an upper limit of how much it can actually produce productively, both in terms of societal cultures, but also in terms of economy and all of that We were taught by our teachers that there's nothing like a Sippy big, that this wasn't a problem. Cities got bigger, they would have more facilities, there were two more things, et cetera, but now suddenly, three decades later I come to teach here. And what I'm telling my students is. Cities is having upper limit Boston Massachusetts, one of the oldest cities in the United States. It is considered an attractive place to live on these things too.


Its proximity to some of the countries, the most prestigious universities.


One of these is Harvard at the Harvard graduate school of design, the Indian architect and urban planning expert Raul Mehrotra teaches about the future of cities born in Mumbai, the challenges of metropolitan life of being at the front of his mind. Since his early childhood Cities are no longer mono. It’s not just a port down the 10 things that happened simultaneously in a globalized world. There are a hundred things that happen simultaneously in the city.


So, the city becomes a credibly complicated in terms of the aspirations that it's trying to respond to and therefore design becomes even more critical because those contestations mean you have to resolve them. And space can be a very important aspect in terms of uh. Yes, urban densification in the modern era has traditionally looked like this Countless high rise Residential buildings packed into a very small geographical space. It’s the classic image of urbanization in Asia's mega cities, but in the United States many cities are growing outwards covering ever more land. The fact that urban space is growing primarily in these two ways results from two technologies.


What do you think about cars? how to budget?


The first is the elevator It has enabled us to live with previously undreamed-of Heights. The other is the car. It is precisely these technologies that many architects today see as a major problem The and the elevator reforms of technology that are more than a hundred years old. They are both. One could say: human isolation systems, The angels, I'm just looking at Los Angeles This is the iconic car city, It's extremely flat, extremely spacious.


Here We isolate people as much as possible. We separate them from each other in an extreme way. Then we require them to consume a lot of fuel and in doing so produce a lot of CO2 and other pollutants. They would Fall. The other extreme is the idea of the vertical elevator city.


If we now look at Hong Kong, for example, where the average living space is around 15 square meters, for me, this is the moment from the matrix when Neo wakes up and somehow pulls the plug. We think it's science fiction, but now it seems closer to documentary We’re almost there and it's driven by a technology like the elevator which allows us to stack space vertically and that people imagine it like chicken sex that can lead to social deprivation. I think Pesci father. These are fixed ways of thinking in terms of what a city should look like, which I believe we should free ourselves from I think that planners’ investors, politicians at all levels, should engage in rethinking the city. I think five o’clock an architect from Berlin, has numerous missions support the city of the future could look like his designs have names like bagel town.


Instead of showing individual buildings,


They show entire neighborhoods, parts of a city that appear lifted straight from the side of a science fiction movie. That’s how futuristic has designed seem to be They ask what the city of the future might look like if we just spent sort of conventional forms of mobility like the car and the traditional elevator Well, some of these are provocative images that may look utopian at first glance. I think God there's nothing utopian about them. The Bible town, it was simply in the idea of how the linear movement of a tram or a train could be turned into a spiral on it. The same goes for the village.


The idea was to see what happens when we have a diagonal elevator and that's exactly movement. We wanted to show how the movement through the space is always the inspiration for the space itself, just as it is flashing a car city and vertical in an elevator city of that That’s exactly the same on the other mobility technologies, surface, the input and inspiration for the design Should be timeless. Current concept was also based on this principle. He calls it the oven shelf, a neighborhood complex in which there are no cars taking up valuable space, but where people move from place to place with the help of so-called micro mobility solutions, which are extremely flexible. Instead of thinking in terms of finished architecture, we're focusing on the infrastructure that makes living together in a neighborhood possible in the first place this dance with the basic structure and includes the floor, the ceiling, the load, bearing structures and the necessary infrastructure for water and electricity.


Infrastructure and Possibilities: 


Everything is built like a giant shelving system as a stacked one on top of the other, with the shelves filled in between them. There are no individual buildings, but rather a single superhuman structure within the idea. Rest of the shelves will be connected with ramps for e-bikes, which can then easily right up the hill, providing access to poplars and public spaces that are found on the different stack layers. The whole big vision kind of in between There is room for living and working. That’s the basic idea.


It can be a very flexible way of building It’s not cast in concrete, so it can change over time. Material function size. What happens between the shelves is completely flexible. There’s a basic structure is built to last forever. There are no high-rise residential towers here or multi-lane highways as glib as it may sound.


Should we turn that has created is designed with people in mind, Let's go by medic and shelf, seeks to provide solutions to the densely populated city of the future, but aims to do so on a human scale. Then it creates you in places that we otherwise lack in cities today, not just on one level but on different levels. People can actually meet and interact on several different levels with the government that we believe, is how we can ensure the social sustainability of a city of the future. Through social exchange, we go to the city to meet and interact with others The whole form of the home. It’s a one of the city's amyloids It is the naughtiest open space and the German capital this morning, max frittata has converted this space into an experimental laboratory.


It is the first step in turning his design into reality via an app.


A virtual map is creative that makes the urban shelf and livable experience. All that's required. Is it enough space at the right vehicle Max his colleagues provide support during his test drive Yeah, you can get the five You can see the path that you can follow? You can also see some neighborhoods or buildings that you can't drive through but the key thing is the path which is shown here in blue.


If we now project the virtual designs from the computer onto the surface, then we can literally experience them for ourselves by cycling through these neighborhoods and getting a sense of what it feels like. Then we can see if the Cubs are a bit too Tice or if it's a bit too long and stress, and therefore a bit boring that way we can adjust and change the designs again. Now, after experiencing it out here in three dimensions, every day, issues with policies how the need for alternative forms of urban mobility is becoming increasingly urgent. Parts of the heavily congested types of restaurants are in Berlin, have recently seen a speed limit imposed due to rising levels of amp pollution. Of course, we don't have the same traffic problems that we see in Mexico, City or in India or another developing regions and the mega cities they have there.


But even Hannah, you notice the fine dust pollution, so we have to ask ourselves: how can we get the cost out of the city? How can cities continue to grow? We also need more affordable living space. There’s enough for us to focus on here in Europe. Should we Thomas architecture studio, often works together with companies from the mobility sector itself?


These include common factors and innovator builders such as Audi and Schindler. The industry has long recognized that it can only remain sustainable by providing new solutions. Fishman Tyler and his colleagues the future of our cities depends on our willingness to rethink established structures. The urban shelf frees itself from the idea of architecture as a design spectacle. I did stand, offers a system-based solution.


One that is individually adaptable to any location to any social structure,


It's a shelf contained space, both luxury apartments and affordable homes. We studied the idea, together with students in Brazil and found that it would make sense to have the basic structure finance with public money, to build the essential infrastructure and then have the people living there. Build the living spaces within their neighborhood with their own hands, ended Up following with Ivan and a bit like they do in the favelas already but within the structure of the urban shelf, that's also what we were aiming for: a certain versatility and visual diversity and the appearance of these living spaces. In Tubingen in Southern Germany, this dream may soon become a reality. The first urban shelf has just been created here, while I'm not yet a fully-fledged urban neighborhood offering micro mobility, transportation options.


It will nonetheless provide space for people to meet and socialize Students and refugees are intended to live here. We didn't want to create the kind of architecture that separates people from one another or force people to be part of a neighborhood I don't know I don't. I believe that we should at least provide the opportunity to those who want it, because if we really want to create sustainable cities and happy urban residents, that I believe that neighborhoods are a measure of how we can support social interaction and contribute to Warren says I Can do it off No matter how rapidly they grow, our citizens continue to be places of social interaction. The strength of our communities is an important indication of how well we are able to live together. The form of the city, the space that you make and be occupied, is critical to fostering the notion of the city as a condenser, the place where there are social interactions that give rise to innovation, and then they give rise to creativity.


The Construct and Manufacture culture:


You know the arts come out of, it Pros come out of it, which is what you and me, and all of us thrive on Again, here, Architecture can play a big role or it's creating conditions where there's more polarity build the hall to this, keep people out, there's a polarity And that polarization processes accident related Seen from a distance, The city skyline, is full of promise, but the closer we look, the mortar feels acquaint different To reality, The centers of all cities have long ceased to be places of community in many parts of what are called global cities of Shanghai, Dubai, New York and Manhattan, and Hudson yards You have tall buildings huddled together with very few lights on in those apartments, because these are, this is just speculated. People have invested from around the world tons of apartments They just like empty five lights on a 30 story, high apartment, so it's got no relationship with people coming there. Its relationship is to the capital that is arrived there. What this does is two things: One is that it creates a hyper, important spot architecture, the materiality of these buildings materials that can be deployed very quickly.


Dry construction,


It's a metal cladding, it's glass which can cooperate quickly because the more quickly the building can go up the whole quickly category can realize its value. And then the other thing it does is it creates iniquity because then marginalizes a lot of people, because this capital that occupies usually prime space in the city, which has got the best services which has got where the jobs are Then you have a complete disjuncture between working andliving, and you have massive inequities that play themselves out just spatially, because the poor just get flicked to the edges of the city. For example, glance at some of the world's largest cities show was when taken to their extreme. Such developments can lead to from the favelas in Rio to the slums in Mumbai and new Delhi. More than 1 billion people live in so-called informal settlements.


Today, this Vega could travel by 2050 I was sitting as grappled with this is going to be a challenge because cities are about people living together and working cooperatively. And if you can't live together in a city, you can't have a city the system breaks down. You don't have to travel to the developing world to see what this looks like. This problem has long been part of Western societies as well. A Stone's throw away from Harvard university is the Massachusetts Institute of technology.




More than 11,000 people will study at this elite university, but they can't live here. While there are plenty of laboratories and offices available. There is nowhere for people to call home The decision about land use is captured by international companies or real estate developers that want to maximize their returns. So, as a result, in this neighborhood we have no grocery store. There’s no pharmacy, there's no day-care center, except for MIT people.


There’s no healthcare facility: You would have to walk a long way to be to buy broccoli for a toothbrush. And very few people live here I mean what little housing is here is only for rich people. So, at night it's completely dead here, because it's not it's not really a functioning community It’s not that urban planners don't care about these issues, but they don't really have the tools to have an impact on them. No researchers at the MIT media lab building these tools. The study group and city science are looking for ways to make towns and communities more livable for their inhabitants.


Through the use of new technology, the group is led by Ken Lawson previously and an architect. He has now focused entirely on research. One of the applications of technology that we are hard that we are most excited about is to reinvent the process using technology and the decisions about land use, Neighborhoods and entire cities can be simulated on one platform. What happens when you home and offices about how does the flow of traffic change?


How many inhabitants are too many which parts of the city are busy?


What time Where, where MIT is a one where kilometer district MIT now has control of 14 acres this this area right here and they are going to be developing this in the future. It’s the last opportunity to turn Kendall square into a real functioning community, so you can see most of the buildings here are represented by these codes. So, oh his office and R is residential. So then, when we run our simulations, we're taking into account the mix of people of different demographic profiles that might live or work in each of these locations, and we can change those on the fly. The module has been fed with data sets that allow countless scenarios to be simulated and urban planning to be carried out in an interactive way.


The idea is to be able to predict the consequences of planning decisions, the individual components of the model I like building blocks that can be exchanged which has an effect on the entire neighborhood Lego bricks. They use to simulate the construction with this kind of tool. You can have lay people, on the one hand, who live and work in the community, be involved in an interactive way in the process, and you can have the mayor and the and the and the civic leaders being involved in the process. So, we think of it as a democratization of design, putting very powerful tools that are currently only available to experts in the hands of non-experts to engage them in the process. This dialogue between urban planners’ investors, politicians and citizens isn't attempt to meet the needs of those who actually live in the city.


The first projects are already underway,


We’re working in Hamburg and he used the tool just like this. To help them address. Housing for the refugees were working in Helsinki to help them redesign the campus at Alto university. This model over here is a street in Shanghai near Tongji university. Eventually, what we'd like to do is to turn this into an open-source platform that anybody could use.


I'D like to see it in hundreds or thousands of cities all over the world, it’s really critical that urban design urban planning become more agile, more adaptable in the future. The notion that you can create a master plan that gets passed by and city and that's a valid for 10 or 20 years when technology and economic system was then social patterns, are changing so rapidly. I mean it's just it's just an invalid concept. The old ways don't will never be fast enough on its mission to improve city life. The city science group is interested in more than just urban planning.


Another innovation of that robotic interiors was also developed at MIT The scientists are working to answer a specific challenge: How flexible can a single room be When you go back to Roman times, we still design the same way. The idea is that a spaces basically per a single function. You have a bedroom with a bed where you sleep in a dining room, with a dining table where you eat in a living room with a couch where you entertain, and you end up with all these rooms. And as you begin to shrink, the apartment cause there's no choice in the city, because land is so expensive that you get to the point where you can't have single function: spaces It’s just impossible. For years the students have been working to develop a solution even breathing new life into office, furniture Their initial prototypes already shows that our single room contains a whole lot of space by means of a light barrier and sensor.


The living room turns into a bedroom,


The kitchen transforms into a bathroom. A dining table suddenly appears where desks going have been standing. And now the research project has turned into a commercial start-up, it’s called Maury living from origami and it was already raised over $ 20 million in investment capital. The transformation and the and the design of spaces with the appropriate technology allows you to configure the space in an effortless way, for whatever function is at hand. And that's a very hard challenge, but you know we're beginning to make that work And I clear I think that is the future I'M totally convinced that in 10 -15 years every department will have this in the city.


Urban space is too valuable to be static. Innovations help us to overcome the challenges we will face in the future. Yes, when it comes to building, we are still not innovative enough to ensure we will even have a future. The urbanization of our planet has led to an insatiable appetite for new buildings. Worldwide 4 million tons of Symantec produced every year.


The construction industry is therefore responsible for a significant proportion of greenhouse gas emissions and that use of precious raw materials. We’re running out of resources, you know, as Buckminster fuller said, we're on spaceship earth. You wrote a book called a manual for spaceship. And what he meant by that is: it's got finite resources, as Gandhi said. You know this planet is enough for our needs, but not for our greed.


Construction Industry,


There is such a demand for building materials around the world. For example, in China, more cement has been used in the past three years than in the USA in the last 100 years. If we are using our resources at a much faster rate, then they can be replenished same goes for sand. We are consuming more sand than is produced through a natural erosion of Poland, Sam This needed to make cement, which is why it is so precious for the construction industry that it could ever run out.


It’s hard to imagine, after all about one thing for the planet's land surface consists of Sandy doesn't, but this type of sand is unsuitable for construction to make cement. You need the kind of sand where the grains into log-in and thereby stick together, come on. This does not take place with desert sand, and so it cannot be used and that's why the city of Doha, for example, despite being located in the desert it has to be built with imported sand. Qatar imported $ 6 billion worth of sand into the desert. Last year, the effects of this multi-billion sand trade, the disastrous the need for building materials, is so great.


The sand is being sourced illegally beaches,


A disappearing, Riverbed So being drenched so much that that flow rate is changing also that he knew her and evermore ambitious building projects could be realized in the world's major cities. I felt wounding, we have to change our thinking and then we have to remember that this is the only planet we have How do we want to ensure its continued existence and that's why we have to consider how we can best use our available resources? And in a small town in the German stays of orange NGO, that is exactly what is happening. A new building material called polymer Concrete has been created, these breaks could revolutionize the construction industry as they are largely of the raw material that is so far been unsuited to building desert sand. The inventors of this miracle substance together, they found it - The company polychaeta - Seems to make quite a difference in given that the sand always contains dust particles which are of no use to us.


If I pour like this, you can see the dust rising. We can't use this dust The past few years of research. I’ve made the two men something they're sand: experts, they know exactly which weights and size of grain are required for that specific barber, since that time in the laboratory is spent effecting the formula of that building material machining the sand is sucked into the machine and the polyester resin, which is a liquid, comes out of a tap. The two are mixed together and this mixture comes out at the front towards an outlet. Five grinders always come the scores, always come machine emits momentum.


Add a hardening agent


It’s a bit like baking, a cake You add the baking powder to the cake mixture and the cake rises. The polyester resin that is added to the sand is a plastic It has similar properties to tree resin, polyester, resin moistens, the sand and blues it together. What’s special about our polyester resin is that it consists of 38 % recycled pet bottles. So basically, we're gluing desert sand together with recycled plastic bottles to form a building material that will essentially last forever the great advantage of polymer concrete is that at once it has been applied and become solid.


It’s completely non-absorbent and releases nothing into the environment. It takes about 20 minutes for a brick made of polymer concrete to set. This is unfeasibly fast compared to conventional concrete, and it has another clear advantage. The production process requires no water at all and generate significantly less CO2. The result Lego break for adults that can be created quickly and above all, easily the idea of producing a construction material came to us after a natural disaster, the terrible earthquake in Haiti in 2010.


My colleague gone to her partner and I got together and thought about what we could do to empower people to rebuild the island themselves. They evolved to bone and that's what inspired us to produce a polymeric hungry to using small machines on site and make Lego bricks from it, so that this would become possible. But first the company is working in a completely different part of the world. No maybe a place more in need of a revolutionary building materials such as polymer Concrete is hard to imagine. Not only are there vast amounts of desert sand, but the country also suffers from extreme drought.


Get outdoors is continuously visiting,


Namibia to realize construction projects. The humanitarian intention behind the material has not been lost That might come up when you're here It’s hard to imagine that in other parts of Africa, things in quite different that there are problems with overpopulation and a severe lack of housing. Here, everything is still spacious and free. The whole continent used to be like that, And the problems that you see today and Lagos or in Cairo willappear in Namibia. At some point there are already people here who live in 10 hearts simply because there's nothing else, Get a small village in the middle of the Mount Ahom nature reserve.


The latest construction site is located. Yeah, a church has to be built entirely from polymer concrete, except for the science manager. The workers are unskilled because the construction itself does not require any specialist training. You guys’ shine. These breaks have the same opening at the bottom as they do at the top.


And that's why you can simply put one on top of the other and it fits all of us played with Lego when we were children. I think that's why the principle is easy to understand that children can do it. Why don't grownups to the exact number of breaks that will be needed for a building is calculated in advance? This helps her to use the amount of construction waste a little bit too high, and not only that, but plug-in system requires either mortar, not any other binding agents to make sure the walls are completely stable. The bricks are also screwed together Using these long-threaded screws just five hours, The entire façade is almost finished.

The main Project Soul:


The current judge is mainly a shipping container with doors and windows, so you really small And, and when did the school is really bored? There are many peoples I want to stay off site, we’ve all been there and some people say. I see that justice is very important because you sound bite to get sick.


You pray for A few hundred kilometer's further south near the Capitol Ventura. A new supply of building materials is being produced for the past few months. The first polymer concrete breaks may directly and then maybe have been created here and maybe the first production facility outside Germany. We have a new team made up of 15 women and 15 men from the neighboring shantytown. We’ve been in production here since February to producing enough materials for one new house.


Every day, sand from Namibia is turned into bricks that look different from the ones we produce in Germany simply because the sand is a bit different. We get to see the houses that are built here Now the people live in the house and how it changes their lives. And then we also see how the lives of our work has changed. That’s what's so great about this. The shantytown Something else God So FinTech most of the thought of the Namibian people is said to live.



Makeshift settlement and housemate 


That’s already being built here Previously a model house presented to the Namibian government. The company has since donated it to the Phillip family. Before that, then living conditions were quite different. It was small, we didn't have a kitchen like this, so we mostly used to dull out cooking outside the house. When did India gum is going inside, you throw the TV wet If it's not good to house?


Everyone just is staying private profiles as they come. You could have seen on the road that most of the answers, yet I just need this. I don't know SIS So they all want to have profiles in decent place to put their head and yeah, a place where they can call it home with the help of governmentand the private funding. Polycount wants to offer many more people the chance to live in homes like this. Their initiative is finally off the ground. And its now high time to scale up that building plans, It's the auto industry.


At the moment, the construction industry is focused on the market for expensive or high-end building methods. And this makes no sense in every country in the world we have problems, building enough social housing so time to death. And if we don't deal with this challenge, our problems will only increase cortisol. The challenges we will face tomorrow require new solutions and new ways of thinking, especially in the fields of planning and architecture. Paris.


During its storied history,


The city has produced many important architects and buildings. They have made the French capital One of Europe's most beautiful cities today, a new generation of architects as a magic confluence Institute. They in learning why architecture has to open itself up in order to change the world, hopefully, luckily in architecture, it's important to think about philosophy, politics, business, So she ology geology geography. All of these disciplines play a role in what the architect has to do, and all these fields must come together to inspire the architects’ designs. Architecture is a culture that absorbs and transforms things to allow something new to emerge from them.


Anyone who has studied architecture and design something but the challenge lies in bringing all these disciplines together. Then that's what we're focusing on here, after all, people who have studied architecture should be in a position to change the world.


Then they don’t, the deck, is taught at various architecture, schools and universities, which you often found the way architecture was draught too rigid, too conservative, too theoretical So she decided to found her own school of architecture and pursue the questions that interested her.


What is the role of the architect and of architecture today?


How can they solve the challenges of the future?


They take data, sets and use them to analyze the location, the environmental, the city and then determine what people in effect, what the customer needs without ever bothering to meet the people they are designing for and getting to know them. Definitely the human dimension has completely disappeared in architecture. That’s actually what I regret the most and that's why I think we need to bring the humanistic idea back into the training of architects. When constructing a building you have to deal with the person you were working in designing, for You have to understand their wishes, because their wishes are the basis of our work. Unfortunately, this is rarely talked about in architecture schools.


Today I don't want. These wishes can be incorporated into architecture as directly as possible. It’s the assumptions of she was a female, has master's thesis concept and now is the shape of a building to be determined by the brainwaves of its inhabitants. It shows FM's thought experiment the architecture even changes as the brainwaves change, thus reacting to the inhabitants, emotions and needs and it isn't, I know the idea was to ask what would happen if the human body and architecture had some kind of common technological DNA. We are rethinking how we will build and live in buildings in the future.


3d printer the geometric shapes


Using a 3d printer the geometric shapes created by the brainwaves are translated into real models. The processes or the principle works. Nowadays we can get the brainwaves and transcribe them into geometry. Of course, we're not able to interpret brainwaves and to say what someone is thinking or feeling at any given moment, but we can collect clues about a person's sensations feelings or impressions. Very good, the idea of this project was to question our future role as architects.


It’s about bringing together a range of disciplines and realizing projects that touch not only on the one aspect, but on several aspects of the field from neuroscience to urban planning. The student's designs could sometimes be mistaken for modern art. The young architects experiment dream finds unusual perspectives. Often it seems less about the feasibility of a designer than about the idea behind it. What Would it be like to live on the moon?


Our profession only requires us to follow rules and design buildings that comply with regulations of the day. Then the job of an architect will eventually disappear, architect Or, as I prefer to say, people who studied architecture, because not everyone necessarily ends up becoming an architect. I have a vision of the world a viewpoint and are able not only to do their job, but also to imagine the future. Then architecture will continue to play a role in the world. Well, we must stop thinking about tomorrow today and act now for the sake of our future.


To imagine the future Scope


When I teach, I always tell my students how much I envy them because they belong to a generation that is about to reinvent architecture for the next 100 years. Isn’t that fantastic Deciding how space will be used in the future has never been more important? It’s a daunting task because so much is at stake. Now, and wow we will live together in the future, Will not only be decided by architects and planners and engineers, but they can play their part in ensuring that this, where and how will continue to exist at all. I think those problems come to us with every project, but we choose not to see them.


We choose to make architecture, the autonomous object. We seem to take the brief only from the client. While we also have the responsibility for society. They are responsible to our patron because they are supporting us, but we are responsible to society because they're going to make an implication for them. So, we have to expand our ambition as architects to expand the agenda, be clever about it and be respectful and honest about it.


And I think pedagogy has to do this with architects this and we have to demonstrate this and we were talking much more about it. That's a very good way to be in


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